3/29/2011

Bali.. here i go...!!

weww... uda lama saia gag ngeupdate ne blog... kangen pengen jadi blogwalker lagi...
been busy fo school guys... to many school's stuffs ive to do...!! grrrr... i hate bein busy, lol.. who doesnt....!!!
nahh, ne hari.. hari selasa pagi.... and u know what.. in less then 8 hours, ill be here: 
a lil bit excited... no no.. i fell so much excited.. lol... finally ill see how beautiful Kuta Beach is...!!
ahh.. tapi saia kan kesana bukan buwad JJ or tour... tapi buwad olympiade...!! beban neehh... secara saingan saia yang di unram aja uda berad2 (barbell kalee beradd... hahahay...) gag ding.. abiz nya ne olympiade kan dikti tuhh yang ngadain.. jadi tingket kesulitan soalnya setara S2.. beehhh.. gag nanggung2 dee soalnya analisa semua.... sukses dee buwad saia gila dalam satu kali baca ja....!! #nasebb2 
tapi its okay lah.. my mom asked me to keep thingkin positive.. gag masalah apa pun yang kita dapet ntar.. yang penting kita dah berusaha and berdoa.. (wahh, dalem banget gag se gw...!!)
well, saia belom slese packing ne peeps... udahan dulu iaa... wish i culd bring my lappy.. so, i can update every single thing that will happen ove there.... saia mezti pisah ama twitter and facebook.. hal terberad yang akan saia jalani dalam hidup ini... *lebayyyyy...!!!
yo wezz lah.. yang ada saia gag slese2 lagi... jam 8.30 teng saia mezti stand by di sana.. kalo gag bakalan di tinggal rombongan.... >.<
okeh... sampe ketemu dalam postingan2 yang gag bermutu selanjutnya..
see ya in Bali guyz..
salam dangdut - annie (cr: bang radith)

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3/19/2011

Steps to be A Famous Blogger

Here is a list of some very creative ways which can help you make your blog popular. If not popular, at least it will give you some ideas of what to post on your blog if you are running out of topics to write about.
  1. Start a controversy. Just remember not to cross the line.
  2. Start a contest. Make sure to end it too.
  3. Give away free goodies. People love them.
  4. Write about other bloggers to interest their visitors to read your blog. Keep it positive.
  5. Dress up your blog often (i mean tweaking the design)
  6. Interview other bloggers and post the interview.
  7. Write about your personal life sometimes.
  8. Ask questions to your visitors.
  9. Share some secrets.
  10. Celebrate your birthday with your visitors. Think of innovative ways for doing this.
  11. Celebrate your blog’s birthday too.
  12. Write something funny or disgusting. (Don’t make it a habit)
  13. Make a bumper sticker with your blog’s name and stick it on your car.
  14. Write an e-book and distribute it to your visitors for free.
  15. Introduce a commission based affiliate program.
  16. Tell your visitors about your latest fad or obsession.
  17. Post interesting pictures of your pets.
  18. Congratulate the top commentators occasionally.
  19. Encourage sharing of opinions.
  20. Donate for a cause or become a volunteer for a non-profit organization. Ask your visitors to join you.
  21. Put your blog’s ad in the local newspaper or the yellow pages.
  22. Hold blog competitions.
  23. Create polls.
  24. Hold an auction and let people bid for something useful (For example, advertising space on your blog).
  25. Write about your blog achievements.
  26. Share your hopes and aspirations about your blog.
  27. Start an award distribution system.
  28. Make contact with your local visitors and hold a get-together or a bloggers’ meet.
  29. Start a blog comic strip.
  30. Try and get a photograph clicked with a real celebrity and post it on your blog.
  31. Post videos that will help your visitors learn something new. Also submit them to video sharing websites like YouTube.com.
  32. Write about your hobbies and interests. (For example, if you like cooking, post a new recipe)
  33. Post about one of the weirdest thing that you ever did.
  34. Get featured in a print magazine.
  35. Brand your blog with a catch phrase along with a logo.
  36. Distribute T-shirts or merchandise with your blog name on it.
  37. Join Yahoo! Answers and put a link on your website to your answers.
  38. Do surveys and publish the results to your visitors.
  39. Build tools that your visitors might find use for.
  40. Start a newsletter.
  41. Podcasting is another good way to make your blog popular.
  42. Publicize your blog to your friends and relatives and let them do some work for you.
  43. Be active in Social Bookmarking websites.
  44. Write about something that’s already famous.
  45. Last but not the least, be yourself.
 cr: anindy @choco-melodies 

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3/16/2011

Meeting (마 중 - Majung) - F.T. ISLAND

FT. ISLAND - Meeting (마 중 - Majung)
>> taken from the 1st album "Cheerful Sensibility" track. 11 <<
Lyrics (Romanization/Hangul/English) + Video (FanMade) + Tokyo Live Performance

Video


(Hangul)

 저녁 무렵 노을이 물결치는 하늘에
문득 울고 있던 그대의 그 모습이 떠올라
잘 있었나요 행복한가요
삼켜왔던 그리움 눈물로 흘러
아직인가요 내게 오는 길
몇 밤을 더 새면 오나요

돌아온다던 그 약속 믿고 있죠

아직인가요 내게 오는 길
이제는 올 때도 됐는데
너무 늦지는 말아요
사랑할 시간이 줄잖아요

지나치다 그녀를 봤었다는 사람은

많이 웃고 있던 예뻐진 그녈 기억 한대요
잘 있었네요 행복했네요
걱정보다 잘 지내 다행이에요
아직인가요 내게 오는 길
혹시나 날 잊어가나요

그럴 리 없죠 사랑한 댔잖아요

아직인가요 내게 오는 길
바쁜 일 끝나면 오나요
걱정 마요 좀 늦어도
여기서 내가 기다릴게요

떠날 때는 다 미안해서 다

돌아올 듯 한데도 그댄 다르죠

아직인가요

내게 오는 길 몇 밤을 더 새면 오나요
돌아온다던 그 약속 믿고 있죠
아직인가요 내게 오는 길
이제는 올 때도 됐는데
너무 늦지는 말아요
사랑할 시간이 줄잖아요

(Romanization)

Jonyog muryob nouri mulgyolchinun hanure
mundug ulgo itdon gudeui gu mosubi tto olla
jal issonnayo hengboghangayo
samkhyowatdon gurium nunmullo hullo
ajigingayo nege onun gil
myot bamul do semyon onayo

Doraondadon gu yagsog midgo itjyo
ajigingayo nege onun gil
ijenun ol ttedo dwennunde
nomu nudjinun marayo
saranghal shigani juljanhayo

Jinachida gunyorul bwassotdanun saramun
manhi udgo itdon yeppojin gunyol giog handeyo
jal issonneyo hengboghenneyo
gogjongboda jal jine dahengieyo
ajigingayo nege onun gil
hogshina nal ijoganayo

Gurolli objyo saranghan detjanhayo

Ajigingayo nege onun gil
bappun il kkuthnamyon onayo
gogjong mayo jom nujodo
yogiso nega gidarilgeyo
ttonal ttenun da mianheso da
doraol duthandedo guden darujyo

Ajigingayo
nege onun gil myot bamul do semyon onayo
doraondadon gu yagsog midgo itjyo
ajigingayo nege onungil
ijenun olttedo dwennunde
nomu nudjinun marayo
saranghal shigani juljanhayo

(English Translation)

This evening, waving glow in the sky
The appearance of a sudden I would have done crying
Did it help Happiness
Have been swallowed by longing and tears flowed
The way is still to me
More leaks coming here a few nights

Says he's returning to believe that appointment
The way is still to me
I've been the year when
Do not get too late
TIME TO LOVE juljanahyo

Who had seen her husband is
Chaz could remember her laugh a lot and became
I forgot there's happiness
Worry about doing better, thank God,
The way is still to me
Did you forget about me in case the

No, I loved daetjanahyo
The way is still to me
After a busy day coming here
Do not worry about me no later than
I'll wait here

When I leave I feel sorry for
You're the back are different seems fair enough

Is still
The way some nights I hang out more leaks
Says he's returning to believe that appointment
The way is still to me
I've been the year when
Do not get too late
Time to love, Youre the line


Cr: Clarharumi @JPOPAsia; YouTube

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Primadonna - F.T. ISLAND

FT. ISLAND - Primadonna
>> taken from the 1st album "Cheerful Sensibility" track. 10 <<
Lyrics (Romanization/Hangul/English) + Video


(Hangul)

내 관심 밖의 일입니다
여자 친굴 사귈 이유가 없죠
내 인생의 주인공은 바로 나니까요

남자들끼리 나눌 얘기 들었다 놔야 할 세상이
사람들의 고민보다 가볍다고 생각마요

그랬던 그 맘이 나 변했습니다
그녀는 프리마돈나
내 청춘이란 무대 위에
그녀가 나타나 주인공이 됐죠

오오- 나의 프리마돈나
걸음걸이는 발레리나
꾀꼬리 같은 목소릴 들으면
막 뛰던 심장이 웃는 것 같아요

프리마돈나
해피엔딩이 돼야만 해요
내 눈엔 반짝이는 별이 뜨고
친군 변했다 놀려도 사랑해요

발레리나 - 발레리나-

여자 마음은 갈대라고
선배들 애기를 들었죠
남자들 의리만이 늘 영원하다 믿은 거죠

그랬던 그 맘이 나 변했습니다
그녀는 뭔가가 달라요
친구들은 코러스가
하루 아침에 난 바보가 됐죠

오오~ 나의 프리마돈나 그녀 뒤에선 빛이 나요
하루 종일 키스하고 싶다
아마 꽃 향기가 날 것만 같아요

프리마돈나
영원한 그대 바보이고 싶어
그대가 입을 열면 시가 되요
완전히 미쳤다고 놀려도

오-

라라라라-
이 세상은 살만 했고 행복은 찾는 사람 몫이었죠
사랑을 찾아요

오오~ 나의 프리마돈나 걸음걸이는 발레리나
꾀꼬리 같은 목소릴 들으면
막 뛰던 심장이 웃는 것 같아요

프리마돈나
해피엔딩이 돼야만 해요
내 눈엔 반짝이는 별이 뜨고
친군 변했다 놀려도 사랑해요

프리마돈나 해피엔딩이 되야만 해요
프리마돈나 그녀 밖에 난 안보이네요
프리마돈나 프리마돈나 프리마돈나

(Romanization)

Ne gwanshim bakke irimnida
yoja chingul sagwil iyuga objyo
ne insenge juingongun baro nanikkayo

Namjadulkkiri nanul yegi durotda nwaya hal sesangi
saramdure gominboda gabyobdago senggagmayo

Guretdon gu mami na byonhessumnida
gunyonun primadonna
ne chongchuniran mudewie
gunyoga natana juingongi dwetjyo

Oh oh naui primadonna
gorumgorinun ballerina
kkoekkori gathun mogsoril durumyon
mag ttwidon shimjangi udnun god gathayo

Primadonna
happy ending i dweyaman heyo
ne nunen banchaginun byori ttugo
chingun byonhetda nollyodo sarangheyo
ballerina ballerina

Yoja maumun galderago sonbedul yegirul durotjyo
namjadul uirimani nul yongwonhada midungojyo

Guretdon gu mami na byonhessumnida
gunyonun mwongaga dallayo
chingururun korosuga haru achime nan baboga dwetjyo

Oh oh naui primadonna
gunyo dwieson bichinayo
harujongil kissuhago shiphda
ama kkot hyanggiga nal godman gathayo primadonna
yongwonhan gude baboigo shipho
gudega ibul yolmyon shigadoeyo
wanjonhi michyotdago nollyodo oh~

Lalalala
I sesangun salmanhekgo hengbogun chadnun saram mogshiotjyo
sarangul chajayo

Oh oh naui primadonna
gorumgorinun ballerina
kkoekkori gathun mogsoril durumyon
mag ttwidon shimjangi udnun god gathayo

Primadonna
happy ending i doeyaman heyo
ne nunen banchaginun byori ttugo
chingun byonhetda nollyodo sarangheyo

Primadonna happy ending i doeyaman heyo
primadonna gunyo bakke nan anboineyo
primadonna primadonna primadonna

(English Translation)

Ne gwanshim bakke irimnida
yoja chingul sagwil iyuga objyo
ne insenge juingongun baro nanikkayo

Namjadulkkiri nanul yegi durotda nwaya hal sesangi

saramdure gominboda gabyobdago senggagmayo

Guretdon gu mami na byonhessumnida

gunyonun primadonna
ne chongchuniran mudewie
gunyoga natana juingongi dwetjyo

Oh oh naui primadonna

gorumgorinun ballerina
kkoekkori gathun mogsoril durumyon
mag ttwidon shimjangi udnun god gathayo

Primadonna

happy ending i dweyaman heyo
ne nunen banchaginun byori ttugo
chingun byonhetda nollyodo sarangheyo
ballerina ballerina

Yoja maumun galderago sonbedul yegirul durotjyo

namjadul uirimani nul yongwonhada midungojyo

Guretdon gu mami na byonhessumnida

gunyonun mwongaga dallayo
chingururun korosuga haru achime nan baboga dwetjyo

Oh oh naui primadonna

gunyo dwieson bichinayo
harujongil kissuhago shiphda
ama kkot hyanggiga nal godman gathayo primadonna
yongwonhan gude baboigo shipho
gudega ibul yolmyon shigadoeyo
wanjonhi michyotdago nollyodo oh~

Lalalala

I sesangun salmanhekgo hengbogun chadnun saram mogshiotjyo
sarangul chajayo

Oh oh naui primadonna

gorumgorinun ballerina
kkoekkori gathun mogsoril durumyon
mag ttwidon shimjangi udnun god gathayo

Primadonna

happy ending i doeyaman heyo
ne nunen banchaginun byori ttugo
chingun byonhetda nollyodo sarangheyo

Primadonna happy ending i doeyaman heyo

primadonna gunyo bakke nan anboineyo
primadonna primadonna primadonna


Cr: EsternLovers+HoneyLemon @JPOPAsia; Youtube

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3/15/2011

HongKi's New HairStyle

he looks sooo awesome (younger though) with this new hairstyle..
i dunno.. but it just reminds me when he was in "After Love" MV..
totally love it.... 
here is his video (self-cam)... gahhh, my cheek was blushing when i watch it....
wonder what he was mumbling too anyway... lol...^^


ahh, his voice, its sounds diff too btw.. but i think it just caused by the quality of this vid..

Labels:

FT.Island - YOZM Interview

What did you do on Chuseok Festival?
Hongki: Went to Japan, started filming MV at 4am and did recording on the 2nd day till night.
Minhwan: Even the Chuseok's break was spent in Japan.
Jonghun: We were eating bentos when others were eating songpyeon (rice cake).
Hongki: Isn't it fortunate that we ate bentos instead of rice balls?

What about last year?
Minhwan: Last year? We were resting on Chuseok last year.
Jaejin: Resting?
Minhwan: There was one week of break.
Jaejin: We didn't have much rest last year right? Our mothers didn't come right?

Everyone couldn't really remember. The manager said everyone were resting on Chuseok last year, except for Hongki who was filming for the TV drama.
Jonghun: I would have remembered if we had rested..
Seunghyun: I was having a great time with my dad. But Hongki hyung suddenly called me saying that he got into trouble and wants me to be there quickly.
Minhwan: Ah, right, that was on Chuseok last year.
Seunghyun: I said "What kind of trouble" and he told me to look for it online, saying that the news is out and it is a big matter.
Hongki: That was during winter when Jonghun and I went to the skiing resort, not Chuseok.
Minhwan, Seunghyun & Jaejin: Ahh, yes.
Minhwan: The break was about 3 days 2 nights. At that time, we really thought what Hongki hyung had joked about was real.
Hongki: After I finished my schedule, Jonghun and I went to the ski resort at night. We were too bored so we played a joke on them. I mass sent them SMS and Jaejin was at the hostel because of exams, university exams.
Jaejin: Yes, was practising bass at that time.
Hongki: I started the joke, saying "I appeared on the internet with immediate news and I feel that it is necessary to have everyone gathered at the office". They called me almost instantly, asking whether it is true. Minhwan said "I'm at home, heading out already, heading out already". I laughed out after awhile and my laughter was discovered as Jonghun was talking on the phone. Jaejin also went to search on the internet immediately and even said "Hyung, there wasn't any news".
Jaejin: I had my computer with me at that time so I went to search for it on the internet.
Seunghyun: I even asked my dad, "Dad, I think I have to go back for awhile. Something just happened to Hongki hyung". Then, my dad said why did this happen, Hongki got into trouble again.
Hongki: What 'again', why did I see 'again'.

There are no special holidays, so rare breaks allows one to have some personal time. Still have to train on eves of special holidays
Jonghun: This time, I heard that we are going to Taiwan during Christmas.
Seunghyun: Taiwan is very good, not cold too.
Jaejin: CNBLUE is also working, so I don't feel lonely anymore. (laughs)
Jonghun: Should be able to have some fun in Taiwan.
Seunghyun: Would be able to celebrate Christmas warmly in Taiwan.

A special holiday that is meaningful becomes nothing special to many people. But after becoming an artiste, this forgotten day becomes one of the most important things.
Hongki: If artists wants to gather and organize a party on Christmas, it's impossible to control each other's schedule, even if it was confirmed on the eve. So it would have to start later if we want.There were also situations whereby appointments, that were already fixed, had to be cancelled because problems arose from others' schedules. But it is also very weird if you are the only one without any schedule. After 'You're Beautiful' ended, Jang Geun Suk hyung had solo overseas activities and Korea fanmeeting. But he had no activities and works for close to a year, so everyday he would say "Hey, play with me" ^^.

You all have been in this industry for 3 years, should have already been accustomed to this entertainment industry. So now, are there any areas which you still feel hard?
Hongki: Waking up in the morning, it is very tiring especially when the schedule is full.

Are there any areas in this entertainment industry whereby you feel that it's more hard to handle? Any examples?
Hongki: Last time I felt that it was hard to face our sunbaes. But our age have increased and there are many sunbaes and hoobaes now, hence, they will approach and talk to us first. There are also many private gatherings with hyungs. Even now, at the broadcast station, I'm very familiar with those people already. So I feel that it is more comfortable.

Then, how do you feel after seeing your hoobaes?
Jonghun: Very cute.
Minhwan: There are some who are similar to sunbaes and some who are already very good. There are also some who feels like small kids and everybody is very young. I was called the maknae wherever I went When I debuted. I was treated very well, because I was said to be the maknae in the singers industry. ^^ Teacher would say "Aigoo, maknae" each time he sees me and treats me very good. I feel it is very magical that there are so many young people now.

Will you all go into others' resting rooms to socialise in midst of activities?
Minhwan: Because there are people we know.
Hongki: We will go because TRAX hyungs' resting room are often beside ours.
Minhwan: We will go and listen to them playing guitars.
Hongki: But basically, we just stone in the resting room.

Are there any funny occurences during the Japan activities? Be it among members or during activities.
Minhwan: Bus Tour. In Japan, bands will do 'Zepp Tour' and the roads in Japan are very long. Hence, (we) will need to spend a lot of time in the bus and each time, it is about 9 to 10 hours.
Jaejin: Foreign famous singers' buses are all modified. However, we sat and spent 10 hours in those common bus.
FT's curled up body ^^
Jaejin: The bus is very nice, its appearance is something that the modified bus cannot compete with. But the interior... (laughs)
Seunghyun: At the seat of a Korea bus, I can rest my legs on one side of the seat. It was also the same during the Bus Tour in Japan. Because it was really very tiring, tired until it's hard to sleep.
Minhwan: Because the journey is very long, I listened finished to all the songs that I've never heard before in my mp3.
Seunghyun: Also, each time we stop to rest at a place, we will film those videos that are shown during concerts. They will film us cleaning up at the resting place, wearing wigs and hats there. Japan is already very hot and wearing like that to film makes it even hotter.
Jonghun: Our endurance level seems to have increased because of this. Enduring tiring things, moving again after a performance, feel that we have become more mature just like this? I feel that we've grown up, because we had done tough things.
Jaejin: There are also delicious things to eat. I feel that it's great when we go to a place, we have to eat the specialty food there. Have you ever tried to eat cow's tongue?
Minhwan: In Japan, it's called 'q-tan'. It is a small, barbequed food, which resembles pork. Its thickness is the same as sliced ham.
Hongki: Japanese find it very delicious.
Jaejin: But it just tastes like ham.
Seunghyun: It feels like kissing with a cow.

So, in total, how long did you all sit in the bus?
Hongki: Maximum 10 hours each time? In total, it's 20+ hours, not yet 30 hours. I was really dying.
Seunghyun: Over there, the President would assign lines for us to say on stage before we reach our destination. The lines have to be memorized immediately if there's a concert the next day. As there's a concert tommorrow, hence the lines have to be memorized immediately in the bus and not memorizing it only in the morning. Everyone feels very troubled, but (we) still have to memorize because it would be very tiring the next day.

What did you all do in the resting/waiting rooms of music programs?
Jonghun: Will sleep when tired, will play guitar, play games. Have been playing frequently because I got an iPad recently.

How about in the car?
Seunghyun: Sleep, listen to music and tearing oil blotters. Sorry, just joking, not used to it right.
Jonghun: We love titbits very much, we keep eating, including ice cream.
Hongki: Recently, I've been exercising in the resting room.
Jonghun: Gave us a lot to eat and we really ate a lot.

How about in the hostel?
Minhwan: Just playing computer as there's nothing special in the hostel.
Jaejin: Become an expert after playing the game only for awhile ^^
Seunghyun: Because we are playing games enthusiatically, we have to change the keyboard after awhile. We have to be enthusiatic in everything we do.
Jaejin: It's different for me everyday. If I'm with friends who play games, we would play games and it would last a whole day. If I'm with friends who compose songs or play musical instruments, we would exchange our skills.
Hongki: Last time, I would stay awake for a few nights because of the game and anyone who disturbs me have to die.

Who is the closest to you among the idol groups members? (One person at a time *^^*)
Hongki: It's Kim Heechul, member of Chocoballs, Chocoballs is Hong-line. Kim Heechul is under Hong-line ^^
Minhwan: I've gotten quite close to SHINee recently.
Hongki: I'm very close with missA's Min.
Jonghun: I was born in 1990. So there are the 90-er friends, like Bigbang's Seung Ri, Davichi's Min-kyung and etc. There's no line, just a group of close friends.

There's also 91-line?
Minhwan: Of course.
Jaejin: At first, I had this idea with Kibum, SHINee's Key. As we didn't have many friends, except for Minho, we wanted to start just like that, but we didn't know when to start. A very strong 91-line was already established when I returned from Japan, so I thought that I must quickly join. Hence, recently I joined and got very close to them.
Minhwan: There's really alot of people in 91-line.
Hongki: At first, there's really many people in 90-line, gathered many people. But now, there's a lot of movements for the people before 90s, 89-ers and 90-ers, I'm like that too.
Seunghyun: I don't have close artistes friends whom are of the same age, only have Minhwan. Because there's no way to mix around with 92-line.
Minhwan: In reality, there's a lot of girls in 92-line. Honestly speaking, it's hard to be close.
Jaejin: I also didn't have many friends one year ago. Suddenly, I got to know more friends after one year. Really have to wait, they will appear very soon.
Hongki: I didn't have anything at first. But subsequently I had after becoming close with Heechul hyung.
Seunghyun: Hongki hyung also introduced hyungs that he know to me.
Hongki: Because I'm very close to Supreme team's as well as TRAX's hyungs.
Seunghyun: Hongki hyung, please introduce them to me, I want to be close to them.

When the new album was released, Which activity left the deepest impression (on you)?
Seunghyun: It's being awarded first place after joining FTIsland as the new member.

How long was the period in between that? Because the activities in Japan was very long..
Seunghyun: I think it was after 2 years. Because it's the first time I was awarded first place, so at that moment, it really meant a lot to me.

Yet watching the program, you all really looked like you all didn't know when the first place was announced.
Everyone: We really didn't know, we were playing at the back.
Hongki: Everyone told me me not to act anymore but I really wasn't acting. I was still on TRAX's hyung's back and when hyung pulled me down, I really got a shock.

If you had a girlfriend, what place would you definitely bring her to?
Hongki: Japan village tour, those with hot springs.
Everyone: It's really fantastic.
Hongki: It's very leisure there as there's no one that I know. If only the breakfast was Korean style.
Seunghyun: Was it Akita (Sapporo, Akita) that Lee Byung-hun sunbae and Kim Tae-hee went together in IRIS?
Jaejin: Jeju Island.
Everyone agreed
Jaejin: Last time, Park Hyo Shin hyung, Minhwan and I went there to film before. It was when the other members were busy and since only we were free, so we went. It was a really fantastic place.
Minhwan: It was really super fantastic. We even went to fun places and did interesting things. It was really good. The trees there also looked different and trees in Seoul were not seen there.
Jonghun: Of course. Don't be such a mountain tortoise.
Jaejin: I like Jeju Island... also had horse meat and horse sashimi.

What left the deepest impression on you in Japan?
Hongki: It was when I first heard Seunghyun's self composed song in Japan. He performed on a radio show upon returning to Korea and the response was very good. It was even placed first and BEST on recent search engines, so the other idols had already watched that performance on the radio show. It was when Seunghyun felt depressed in Japan, while eating GyuDon (Beef Bowl) and composing while holding to the guitar. The lyrics went "I am a singer~ singing with my feelings, because I have GyuDon...". It was like this and that, very amusing.
Seunghyun: I felt like I was expressing my feelings and I felt great.
Hongki: Jonghun said it was very good upon hearing it. So he joined in at the chorus. Jaejin said the chorus was very funny, so he filmed a video.
Seunghyun: Originally, the song was already not bad, Jonghun hyung's vocal was great too (laughs together)
Jaejin: Originally, I thought that these 2 people are so-so. When I was filming, I felt that it was so funny. I really couldn't hold it in because of Jonghun hyung's chorus. I couldn't bear with it till the end because it was too funny.
Hongki: These children kept having NGs (T/N: NG means No Good, the scene is not good or they make mistakes) because they laugh so frequently.
Jaejin: Because I'm laughing, so others also laugh along with me.
Seunghyun: On a rainy day, while eating GyuDon.
Jaejin: When I first heard it, I felt that it was very true. But I felt that it was very funny after listening to it.

Now thinking back, what's one mistake that you've committed that's very funny yet embarrassing?
Hongki: It was during broadcast of a program, the main stage and drummer's position.
Minhwan: There's only me at that position.
Hongki: Kara performed before us and because of the performance, the four of us were waiting for signal to go up the stage. At the live broadcast, Minhwan turned his head to look at Kara, it had already began, but he turned his head to look again.
Minhwan: This would happen because Kara was performing. I wanted to confirm the timing for us to start, so I had to turn to look. I was thinking that after Kara ended, the host would come out and introduce FTIsland, so I turned to look at the stage. Hyungs should walk out first before the song starts, but they didn't come out. So I thought it hadn't started and just sat there. But the song was already being played, so I immediately looked back, but didn't see hyungs. So I was thinking 'What happened?'
Hongki: This really created a huge topic, 'Behind that idol image, Minhwan is Kara's fan'. Choi Minhwan's mistake, go search for it on the internet, will find it.

What's the best gift received till this date?
Hongki: It was a small dog that I received last time. Korean Primadonnas said that I looked like Siberian Husky. At first, I felt that we really looked alike and it's very cute so I took care of it, but after a month, I felt that... it is really formidable at defecating (sweats)
Minhwan: At first Hongki said he wanted to take care of it, but in the end, he didn't tidy it. He didn't even help it to shower and just said 'Seunghyun ah, clean it.'

Overseas primadonnas send gifts too, the one that left the deepest impression was...
Minhwan: To be honest, because we have to board the aeroplane, we couldn't bring back many gifts that we received.
Jonghun: There were many that were very expensive.
Seunghyun: We do not accept branded gifts from Japanese primadonnas. President announced that they can't give us branded goods. Why did he say something like this ^^
Hongki: I talked to about it to manager hyungs before, saying "Why must you stop them, primadonnas want to give~~" ^^
Seunghyun: Probably because it's the company's rule.
Jaejin: I feel that receiving instruments is very special.
But you might not be interested in all of the musical instruments. If they send any kind of instrument, you might not even use some of it.
Minhwan: Trying every kind of instruments is a good thing.
Jonghun: It's very good to receive instruments. Primadonnas also gave us a lot of accessories for our instruments, it's very useful.
Minhwan: There are also a lot of cheap yet useful items.
Jaejin: I had once received an instrument which was what I wanted to learn. I felt that they helped me a great deal because they gave me a gift that I really wanted to buy.
Jonghun: Yes, this is the best gift.
Hongki: I also received an acoustic guitar this time round.
Seunghyun: I should be the one to receive it since I'm the guitarist, but instead, Hongki hyung received it.
(All the members burst into laughters)
Seunghyun: I'm the one playing the guitar and seeing that even Hongki had received it, so I went to buy one and play^^

Who is the member who is like a mother and takes care of the rest?
Jaejin: To be honest, questions similar to this had been asked many times before. If we were gathered together, it's possible to come up with each member's role in a family. But we are just brothers, not a family.
Hongki: So, amongst the brothers, there would be one who does well in studies, just like Jaejin who is very honest. There would also be one who doesn't understand reasons, just like Seunghyun, the maknae who doesn't have any target and shows aegyo to hyungs. There's also Jonghun who will mess around.
Jonghun: What mess around~ Say I'm meticulous~
Hongki: Alright, someone who is meticulous and mess around. Minhwan is unable to attract people's attention.
Jaejin: Neighbours who are like brothers! Friends whom come over to play everyday
Hongki: I'm the type who mess around too
Minhwan: It's special, there's also a part which resembles a hyung. There was once when Hongki hyung was moving house, he called everyone over. He said "Children, bring the clothes away", manager hyungs even came to show some concern.
Seunghyun: Really amusing, it was really like a market. Hongki hyung held one piece of clothe up like this and everyone stood up just like buyers.
Jaejin: (Hongki:) "THIS!" and then (everyone:) "ME ME ME"
Minhwan: Members' sizes are about the same, except for shoes. Even manager hyungs were gathered there.
Hongki: Those who didn't get it would fight and say he wanted to wear that~

Where did fashionable Hongki buy his clothes from?
Hongki: I also bought it from market(?), I would also shop online frequently. If there is any clothe that I liked which I wore for promotional activities, I would give money to the stylist. I don't like receiving free things, I bought 4 sets this time round.
Stylist nodded when asked about it
Jaejin: If you want to show the fashion differences between members, Hongki once gave Minhwan a pair of pants. It seems that Minhwan wore that pants for more than a year and he loves to wear that pair of pants.
Minhwan: Wore it for approximately 6 months.
Jaejin: Wearing it out, codi or others would see it right. They would say 'Oh, very nice' and almost all of the praises was referring to the pants that Hongki hyung gave.
Seunghyun: Previously, we went to 7 countries for our Asia tour and Minhwan wore the same pants throughout. He would wash that pants when we were temporary resting in Korea and put it back on after that. (Everyone burst into laughters)
Hongki: Minhwan said this time he bought a pair of pants in Japan.
Seunghyun: He has no more primadonnas ^^ Primadonnas feels irritated because Minhwan's clothes were the same everyday.
Jonghun: Black pants turned into grey pants ^^
Minhwan: I prefer to use familiar things
Hongki: It was something funny that happened during this Asia tour. Jaejin said to change my style, so I brought my clothes to let codi assist me. But each time we reach the airport, primadonnas would tell Jaejin that his clothes are very nice.
Jaejin: In other countries, if Hongki hyung looks at my style, he would casually say "You look very nice today, how did you do it? Had a sudden fashion inspiration?". His mood for that day would be different, the difference in mood would be focused on me.
Hongki: Fashionistas like G-Dragon are people who starts the trend. Even though at some level, my style fits well with fashion, but I will still search for something special. I would add something that was previously fashionable. To be honest, when I go for rehearsal in the morning, I would leave the house late because I would put in effort to do some styling. Usually people leave their house late because they overslept. Even though I wake up early, there are times that I would leave the house late because of deciding on which clothes to wear.

Which primadonna left the deepest impression?
Hongki: It was a Japan primadonna, she had pink hair and cosplayed. She would also come to Korea to find me. I was really very surprised because she was really too eye-catching. She became a primadonna during Zepp tour. Ever since then, she would come to Korea frequently. Korean primadonnas do not have such a unique appearance like her. But those that who came and find us frequently and cheered for us sincerely would also leave an impression on us.

What thing changed during the period in Japan?
Hongki: I felt that everyone had 3 heads. It was like there was more space for us to ponder, more space to ponder about more ideas. If we only had activities in Korea, we would only be able to ponder about one idea. I felt like we were able to ponder about more ideas in Japan.
Minhwan: No matter what, I felt that we should have more ideas. We were able to become good friends with idol groups when we were in Korea. But due to the music differences, it was almost no use to us. Previously, when Wheesung sunbae's resting room was the nearest to ours, it was a great help to Hongki hyung's vocals and the production of our album. But, since we are a band, it was of not much help in terms of the instruments or the way we perform. If we were in Japan, we were able challenge ourselves new things that we weren't able to do so when we were in Korea. I tried performing with the acoustic guitar this time and after which, I would learn percussion. There were many opportunities to learn.

There were also many genres of music to try out right?
Jaejin: To be honest, there is something wrong with this sentence. We were able to try out the different genres in Japan's music industry. But speaking of which, many sunbaes said we are not newbies anymore, this image doesn't belong to us. We feel that we resemble rock singers when we are on stage. This is because we had many stage experiences when we were in Japan. Because we gained confidence and learnt to stay calm, so I felt that my emotions and attitude on stage are now different.
Hongki: I've learnt how to handle unforeseen circumstances through many public performances in Japan. Even if the condition of my throat is not good, I would lower the key and go up the stage without panicking. During the 1st and 2nd albums promotions, I would follow the original key unconditionally. So, there were times when I would go out of tune when my throat isn't well

If you were to go to a deserted island, which member would you bring along??
Hongki: I want to go alone. No, I would bring Seunghyun along. No, I would bring Minhwan along.
Seunghyun: To order me to do things?
Jonghun: Situations of one starving would most likely not happen if you were to go with Minhwan. Because he is unable to bear with hunger ^^
Jaejin: Minhwan is also very good at chatting
Seunghyun: Hongki hyung made a good decision by not bringing me along. If hyung brought me along, he would have to take care of me when I'm sick.
(Everyone burst into laughter)
Hongki: That is why I changed my mind.

What would you want to do the most if you can go on a holiday?
Hongki: I want to go to America. Since I've never been there, anywhere is fine, but it must be America. I want to learn everything if I go there because I feel that as compared to Japan, it would be a whole new experience in America. I want to change my name, secretly send albums there and see if my voice or music would be accepted in America.
But you would be recognized once someone hears your voice. Netizens are able to search for it through youtube and other websites.
Hongki: Have to deny it no matter what
Minhwan: It seems interesting to use an album that had not been publicized.
Hongki: If the results are not bad, we can let our agency know about it. We can also expand our career in America.
Jonghun: We are a little whimsical ^^
Hongki: A band has to be crazy and possess the power of resistance.
Jonghun: We really want to go on an overseas trip. Even though we go overseas frequently due to performances, but mostly, it is just 2 days 1 night, 3 days 2 nights. Other than that, if it was for a long period, it would also be due to work.

Other than on programs, who is the 16 dimensions member when members are together?
Jonghun: Maknae Seunghyun
Seunghyun: Because I want to express everything that I thought of comically, that is why it is like this. I like to see people's faces when they laugh.
Hongki: You have also seen many angry faces recently right~
Seunghyun: Yes, I have seen many angry faces recently. It is because I carried the joke too far.
Jaejin: He would also scare people. His actions are very funny, even small actions are very funny.
[Took a look just now, his way of joking is a little special]
Minhwan: When I look at him at any point of time, he would laugh by himself. When I asked "What happened to you", he would say "Because I thought of funny matters".
Seunghyun: This is not counted as being 16 dimensions. I was dragged down by everyone because of my good character. When being questioned by the members, I would say it is because when you are alone and funny thoughts suddenly come to you, that is why you will laugh out loud by yourself. But they are unable to understand when I say that I laugh because I thought of funny things alone. Is it so special? Can't you see it from my point of view? (i can see it^^)

When you all first went to Japan, who was the first member who could not adapt there?
Hongki: I did not fall sick this time. When we went to Japan the first time, I was the first one to get home sick and we came back earlier because of me. It was during the period when I was attending school and having activities at the same time.
Jonghun: So far, we only went to Japan because of work. I want to go there for a holiday.

Who is the member who cares the most about his appearance or fashion?
Hongki: I am the fashionista. But it depends ^^ I like unique things.
Minhwan: It is definitely Hongki hyung. Hongki hyung likes being fashionable and owns a lot of fashionable stuffs. Just the shoes alone, he owns over 40 pairs and they are placed all the way to the living room. Jonghun hyung's style is that it is fine as long as he likes it but he would also bother about it. I feel that he does not have many accessories? Even if he had worn it before, he would still give off a different feeling each time. But Hongki hyung often wear new ones and they are sparkly.
Hongki: It's not sparkly ~it's elegant~
Minhwan: The feeling its like wearing a glowing shoe.
Hongki: Seunghyun minds too but he doesn't have a way to carry out the latest fashion style.
Seunghyun: Hng, I'm the one that fits fashion trend best~
Hongki: When I was acting in "You're Beautiful", I found out that both Yonghwa and I like skull necklaces and rings and so we decided to set up a business. We promised each other that once we have earned money, we would get it together. We really went to design and even found suppliers but because of our busy schedules, we could not make it happen. If we really do set up business, Geunseuk hyung and Shinhye promised to support us.

If FT Island is able to do something with your fans, what would it be?
Seunghyun: Go on an holiday for 2 days 1 night, feel like going on an holiday.
Hongki: DBSK sunbae and many artistes have done it before with about 200 or 150 fans. They gathered in a rented motel for 2 days 1 night. We have not done this before.
Minhwan: It must be interesting, I want to try.
Hongki: It's just like an camp where we can do many things, but I don't really understand. This can become a topic, split into small groups seems like it'll be interesting.

Does any member has special sleeping habits? What do you play (do) in your dorm?
Hongki: There is 1 member who sleepwalk. The person is the one who is not laughing.
(everyone looks at Jaejin)
No special sleeping habits?
Minhwan: No, no special sleeping habits. It's just that Jaejin hyung is too sensitive. Now, it's much better. It's only during our trainee period. Jaejin's sleeping position would never change, it would be the same in the morning. He would fell asleep without moving and the next morning, he would be in the same position.
(Everyone starts laughing^^)
Minhwan: Not even a inch. When he heard manager's footsteps while sleeping, he would immediately get out of bed and say "Hyung is here?" So weird.
Hongki: Nobody knew when he started to sleepwalk and doing weird actions. (laughs loudly)
Jaejin: I got caught by Hongki hyung for about 3 times already. The previous time when we were sleeping in the same group, I, without knowing..
(because it was too funny, Hongki started laughing loudly)
Jaejin: I took out the clothes on my body and Hongki hyung said I was a pervert. Wherever he went, he would tell people, made me so stressed (embarrassed)~ He would say "You stripped and sleep at the same time".
Seunghyun: Now, Jaejin's name is related to "Pornstar" hehe.

When overseas, what Korean food would you miss most?
Hongki: Potato soup, kimchi soup.
Minhwan: I want to drink soup the most.
All: Spicy food and preferably with soup, especially in Japan.
Hongki: Pig blood soup^^ we really love eating Korean food.
Minhwan: Spicy chicken soup, overseas also have spicy chicken soup but it's very expensive and taste different.
Hongki: When we visit Southeast Asia countries, we will request korean food from the workers. It's a little tough in Southeast Asia countries. I had food poisoning when I was in Thailand and had to end all activities. I wanted to go to Pattaya but because I had food posisoning, I was the only one who couldn't go. Luckily it was the day before.

Did you take note of any girl group member recently?
Hongki: Lizzy Lizzy Lizzy! Busan girl, I like people who use dialect.
Jaejin: Miss A's Suzy.
Jonghun: Secret's Hyosung.
Seunghyun: I don't have one.
Hongki: Eh~ I thought you did?
Seunghyun: Ah! Davichi's Kang Min Kyung noona.
Minhwan: Also from Secret.
Hongki: Yes.
All: Yes~ why is it like this is so different from reality.
Minhwan: Just let me be.
Jonghun: Jaejin likes Rainbow.
Jaejin: Rainbow is good but Suzy is the best.

Who is the weakest (strength) member?
Minhwan: Comparing physical strength, the weakest should be Seunghyun.
Manager: About this question, you can actually watch from TV programmes like "Idol Sports Athletes Championship".
Jaejin: Strictly speaking, we always sit and practice, so we don't have any muscles.
Jonghun: As you can see from 2PM and 2AM in Idol Sports Athletes Championship, when I finished running 100km, I was so breathless but they were not even tired.
Jaejin: Out of all of us, Minhwan is the healthiest, he has never fallen sick and has been eating well.
Seunghyun: All the while, people like this are only uncomfortable in their rooms.
(laughs together)
Seunghyun: He is unwell everyday, feeling uncomfortable as days passes.
Minhwan: Seunghyun's mouth was sick, no idea if it was fake, he fell sick for 5 days, he couldn't laugh, seems like we won't fall sick till that state
Seunghyun: It really hurts.
Minhwan: Yes, I have also encountered this kind of sickness.
Hongki: So he must have be strong enough to prevent these kind of sickness.
Seunghyun: When I was young, the doctor told me I was weak.
Jaejin: I have researched, he is a moving hospital ward ever since he was a trainee ^^
Jonghun: Overall, all our bodies are not good.
Hongki: Have understood that all musicians (be it location) that their tummy will protrude out and why their upper body looks nice (upper body as in only chest) but their tummy will run out, so we must take more care of our bodies.

Having to be the top 10 on the Oricon Chart in Japan, how are you all feeling right now?
Hongki: Happy happy^^ the first single was already on the top 3 on daily charts, 4th on weeky's, created a history in the office, feeling very good and als fortunate. Our 2nd single was also ranked 4th and 5th but our 2nd single did made more sales than the previous one, from what I see, seems like its getting better.
Hongki: It's partly because we're a band. For dance, DBSK senior opened a big bath and so Bigbang succeeded there. In Japan, our company specialices in band, a little different from Korea. Recently, idols have been working with big album producer companies but we are under a different kind even the way they promote.Those big companies have large promotion activities however for our side, we're doing what we can do, it's really different.
Minhwan: We're really feeling good, it's (results) are not going up and down but its going even higher everytime and even better, this feeling is even better.

How do you make yourself look photogenic?
Hongki: Truthfully, I look photogenic all the time. It was the cameraman who told me.. Jonghun, Jaejin and I look good whenever we take pictures but it's hard on Seunghyun and Minhwan.
Minhwan: The most photogenic is hongki hyung. Whichever angle, Hongki hyung still looks good. Out of 10 pictures, 9 pictures can be used. Jonghun hyung.. out of 10 pictures, 6 or 7 pictures can be used. Inside, 1 or 2 will be best cut. Seunghyun is the least photogenic.
(everyone laughs)
Minhwan: But the least photogenic one will also have best cut, although it will look weird, those pictures which cannot be used won't be used but 1 picture will look super good.
Jaejin: Because of my eyes, I am always not satisfied, it seems like my eyes are blur.
Hongki: Touch ups are always like this, face becomes small and lots of touch up everywhere, so people looks different on pictures.
Jaejin: Ah so hardly to see you protecting me, why did you this time..

So there is no special way?
Hongki: To be honest, my left side looks nicer.
All: We all have our own favourite angle.
Hongki: If our hair has parting, it would be there. If there is no parting, then we will tae straight. Sometimes when we have a little of double chin, we have ways to not take our neck.
Minhwan: Ah so this is what Hongki hyung have been doing.
Hongki: I will also do this when I am doublechin-less.

Curious about the process of this album's hit song
Seunghyun: Honestly, 1 week before starting on our promotional activities, we changed our hit song, it was initially another song but it was changed to "Love Love Love". We thought it through and also have considered the outcomes. After a long while we then have decided to start our promotional activities in Korea, felt super nervous and changed our hit song.

So, during the process of making, any thing especially tiring or happy?
Jaejin: I feel that it would be Jonghun’s hyung own self composed song which have been included into the Korean album, feels that putting a member’s self composed song in the album is a new feeling. Although Hongki hyung sings with emotions but it would be a little (common). This song would be more joyful and interesting to perform and can also put more effort into performing so this part was the most impactful for me, we put our all into this song.
Hongki: Felt like Jonghun put a spell on me. When I first recorded the song, I felt uneasy because I was the one receiving instructions while Jonghun was giving instructions for the first time. During the process, I felt a little weird but I recorded I happily, finished it in awhile. The lead singer added colous to the song^^ hahaha

Did you listen to the instructions?
Jaejin: Because we’ve spent time for quite long when Jonghun hyung says “It’s like this”, I will “AH~” and immediately perform, we have these kind of situations.
Jonghun: If I say “Do you have what (who) you like!”
Jaejin: “Ah! It’s this feeling!” This situation is very common and ended the recording happily.
Jonghun: Because we spend a lot of time together.

Source: Daum
Translate Korea-Chinese: bag @FTITW
Translate Chinese-English: multiplylove @Silh0uette
Shared by: Cellia @HI
Cre: Primadonnas' Island blog -- Bluecow (reposted by Annie)

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FT.Island - MBC Korean Music Wave in Bangkok, Thailand

this is a "fancam".. kinda bad quality, ikr..!!
but it just showed me how cool they are.....
wish i was there... lucky you Thai Prims...
im soo freakin jealous... too bad i havent watched them in live concert.. >.<

Labels: ,

Breakaway - Kelly Clarkson

Kelly Clarkson - Breakaway
SongWriters: Gerrard, Matthew; Benenate, Bridget; Lavigne, Avril Ramona;


Grew up in a small town
And when the rain would fall down
I'd just stare out my window
Dreaming of what could be
And if I'd end up happy
I would pray (I would pray)

Trying hard to reach out

But when I tried to speak out
Felt like no one could hear me
Wanted to belong here
But something felt so wrong here
So I prayed I could break away

[Chorus:]

I'll spread my wings and I'll learn how to fly
I'll do what it takes til' I touch the sky
And I'll make a wish
Take a chance
Make a change
And breakaway
Out of the darkness and into the sun
But I won't forget all the ones that I love
I'll take a risk
Take a chance
Make a change
And breakaway

Wanna feel the warm breeze

Sleep under a palm tree
Feel the rush of the ocean
Get onboard a fast train
Travel on a jet plane, far away (I will)
And breakaway

[Chorus]


Buildings with a hundred floors

Swinging around revolving doors
Maybe I don't know where they'll take me but
Gotta keep moving on, moving on
Fly away, breakaway

I'll spread my wings

And I'll learn how to fly
Though it's not easy to tell you goodbye
I gotta take a risk
Take a chance
Make a change
And breakaway
Out of the darkness and into the sun
But I won't forget the place I come from
I gotta take a risk
Take a chance
Make a change
And breakaway, breakaway, breakaway

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3/09/2011

Sistem Ekskresi / Pengeluaran pada Aves (Burung)

Sistem Ekskresi / Pengeluaran pada Aves (Burung)

Alat pengeluaran pada burung / aves berupa ginjal, paru-paru dan kulit. Burung mempunyai sepasang ginjal berwarna coklat dengan tipe metanefros. Ginjal tipe metanefros memiliki ciri-ciri tidak bersegmen, tidak memiliki nefrostoma dan jumlah glomerulusnya banyak. Ginjal burung berfungsi mengambil zat-zat sisa dari darah yang berbentuk urine. Saluran ureter bermuara langsung pada kloaka, karena aves memang tidak memiliki vesika urinaria (kandung kemih). Kloaka merupakan muara dari tiga buah saluran, yakni saluran kotoran, saluran urine, serta saluran reproduksi. Adapun paru-paru berfungsi untuk mengeluarkan gas CO2 yang merupakan hasil metabolisme sel-sel tubuh. Pada bagian belakang tubuh burung terdapat ekor yang sangat pendek yang disebut uropygium. Uropygium ini mengandung kelenjar minyak (glandula uropygialis), dimana kelenjar ini menghasilkan minyak  untuk melumasi bulu sehingga burung tersebut tidak mudah basah jika berada di air. Selain itu, kelenjar minyak juga berfungsi sebagai cadangan makanan berupa lemak.
Ekskret pada aves bersifat semisolid (menyerupai pasta), hal ini disebabkan karena aves hanya memiliki satu saluran pengeluaran yakni kloaka, sehingga urinenya dikeluarkan secara bersamaan dengan feses. Ekskret ini juga mengandung asam urat (C5H4N4O3) atau 2,6,8-trioxypurine yang bersifat kurang larut dalam air, kurang toksik dan untuk mengekskresikannya diperlukan sedikit air, dapat terakumulasi dalam telur tanpa menyebabkan kerusakan pada embrio serta jika berada dalam jumlah yang besar akan membentuk endapan yang menyerupai kristal.
Ada beberapa jenis burung yang dapat hidup dalam lingkungan yang sangat kering, misalnya burung gurun pasir. Salah satu adaptasi yang dilakukan adalah kemampuannya untuk mengubah senyawa-senyawa limbah nitrogen menjadi asam urat yang tidak larut dalam air sehingga dapat diekskresikan tanpa menggunakan banyak air. Adaptasi ini memungkinkan aves dengan habitat gurun dapat bertahan hidup, walaupun air yang tersedia sangat sedikit. Kandungan air dalam makanan yang bergabung dengan air hasil respirasi seluler cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air mereka.

pls take out with full credit:
Nisa, A. 2011.  Sistem Ekskresi / Pengeluaran pada Aves (Burung) diakses dari http://anniesfile.blogspot.com/2011/03/sistem-ekskresi-pengeluaran-pada-aves.html

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Clostridium botulinum Penyebab Botulisme

 >> subject: Mikrobiologi Pangan <<

Strategi Inhibitor Pertumbuhan Clostridium Botulinum Pada Produk Bahan Pangan Dalam Industri Kalengan Serta Penanganan Medis Pada Botulisme

Mikroorganisme ada yang dapat mendatangkan keuntungan dan mendatangkan kerugian. Mikrobe dapat bersifat menguntungkan (mikroba apatogen) misalnya menghasilkan produk-produk makanan khusus, imunisasi, vaksin, dan berperan dalam proses pembuatan makanan dalam industri. Namun, mikrobe juga dapat membusukkan protein, memfermentasikan karbohidrat, dan menjadikan lemak atau minyak nerbau tengik. Keberadaan mikrobe pada makanan ada yang berbahaya atau dapat sebut sebagai mikroba patogen bagi manusia, beberapa mikrobe mengakibatkan kerusakan pangan, menimbulkan penyakit, dan menghasilkan racun.
Secara faktual, bahan pangan merupakan medium pertumbuhan yang baik bagi berbagai macam mikroba. Sering dijumpai dalam dunia industri makanan yang dikemas dalam bentuk kalengan adanya kerusakan pangan yang ditimbulkan oleh mikroba patogen yang dapat menghasilkan racun yaitu Clostridium botulinum.

1.1 Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum dapat menghasilkan molekul protein dengan daya keracunan yang sangat kuat yang dikenal dengan botulinin. Botulinin tersebut yang menyebabkan botulisme, yaitu penyakit keracunan makanan yang terkontaminasi oleh Clostridium botulinum. Bakteri ini menghasilkan toksin (racun) yang dapat menyerang saraf (karena menyerang saraf maka disebut neurotoksin). Gejala keracunan ini (botulism) dapat terjadi selang beberapa jam sampai satu atau dua hari setelah mengkonsumsi makanan yang terkontaminasi Clostridium botulinum. Beberapa gejala yang timbul antara lain mulut kering, penglihatan kabur, tenggorokan kaku, kejang-kejang dan dapat mengakibatkan penderita meninggal karena sukar bernafas (Wiwit, 2008).
Clostridium botulinum umum terdapat pada makanan kalengan dengan pH lebih dari 4,6. Kerusakan makanan kaleng dipengaruhi oleh jenis makanan dan jenis mikroba yang terdapat didalamnya. Tanda-tanda kerusakan pada makanan kaleng yang disebabkan oleh Clostridium botulinum diantaranya adalah produk mengalami fermentasi, bau asam, bau keju atau bau butirat, pH sedikit di atas normal dengan tekstur rusak. Penampakan pada kaleng memperlihatkan bahwa kaleng menggembung (Siagian,2002).
Makanan yang aman adalah makanan yang tidak tercemar, tidak mengandung mikroorganisme atau bakteri dan bahan kimia berbahaya, telah diolah dengan tata cara yang benar sehingga sifat dan zat gizinya tidak rusak, serta tidak bertentangan dengan kesehatan manusia. Karena itu, kualitas makanan, baik secara bakteriologi, kimia, dan fisik, harus selalu diperhatikan. Kualitas dari produk pangan untuk konsumsi manusia pada dasarnya dipengaruhi oleh mikroorganisme.
Pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dalam makanan memegang peran penting dalam proses pembentukan makanan serta dapat memproduksi senyawa yang menimbulkan bau tidak enak dan menyebabkan makanan menjadi tak layak makan. Beberapa mikroorganisme yang mengontaminasi makanan dapat menimbulkan bahaya bagi yang mengonsumsinya. Kondisi tersebut dinamakan keracunan makanan.
Keracunan makanan tidak disebabkan tertelannya organisme hidup, melainkan akibat masuknya toksin atau substansi beracun yang disekresi mikroorganisme ke dalam makanan. Organisme penghasil toksin tersebut mungkin mati setelah pembentukan toksin dalam makanan. Organisme yang menyebabkan keracunan makanan salah satunya adalah Clostridium botulinum. Clustridium botulinun penghasil toksin pada makanan dan minuman kaleng (Astawan, 2007).
Gambar1. Clostridium botulinum
Klasifikasi Clostridium botulinum adalah :
Kingdom : Bacteria
Divisi : Firmicutes
Kelas : Clostridia
Ordo : Clostridiales
Famili : Clostridiaceae
Genus : Clostridium
Species : Clostridium botulinum
Secara morfologi, Sel vegetatif C. botulinum berbentuk batang dan berukuran cukup besar untuk ukuran bakteri. Panjangnya antara 3 μm hingga 7 – 8 μm. Lebarnya antara 0,4 μm hingga 1,2 μm.Pada pengecatan Gram, C. botulinum yang mengandung spora bersifat Gram positif, sedangkan C. botulinum yang tidak mengandung spora bersifat Gram negatif. Namun, C. botulinum termasuk bakteri Gram positif.Spora yang dihasilkan oleh sel Clostridium secara struktural sangat berbeda dengan sel pada spesies itu sendiri, tapi yang terkenal adalah spora pada Clostridia yang bersifat patogen. Lapisan paling luar spora disebut dengan exosporium. Exosporium ini bervariasi antara masing – masing species, terkenal pada species yang bersifat patogen, termasuk C. botulinum. Lapisan di bawah exosporium disebut dengan membran spora, terdiri atas protein yang strukturnya tidak biasa. Bagian tengah spora mengandung DNA spora, ribosom, enzim, dan kation. Kandungan logam pada spora C. botulinum berbeda dari kandungan metal pada Bacillus. Strain proteolitik C. Botulinum dapat menghasilkan spora yang sangat resisten dengan pemanasan tinggi.

Gambar 2. SporaClostridium botulinum
C. botulinum merupakan bakteri anaerob yang tidak dapat tumbuh di lingkungan aerob contohnya tumbuh pada makanan kaleng. Hasil uji pertumbuhan pada media agar aerob adalah negatif. C. botulinum bersifat motil atau dapat bergerak dengan flagel yang berbentuk peritirik. Motilitas C. botulinum ini umumnya sulit ditunjukkan, terutama pada strain yang sudah cukup lama ditanam. C. botulinum merupakan bakteri Gram positif yang memiliki kandungan peptidoglikan antara 80 – 90% dari komponen dinding sel. C. botulinum tidak dapat membentuk kapsula maupun plasmid. Bakteriofag pada genus Clostridium dapat diasosiasikan dengan neurotoksisitas dari C. botulinum tipe C dan D (Elvira, 2008).Clustridium botulinun dapat menghasilkan molekul protein dengan daya keracunan yang sangat kuat yang dikenal dengan botulinin. Botulinin tersebut yang menyebabkan botulisme, yaitu penyakit keracunan makanan yang terkontaminasi oleh Clustridium botulinun.
Tumbuhnya Clostridium botulinum pada makanan utama makanan kaleng dipengaruhi oleh suhu dan waktu pemanasan yang tidak memadai selama sterilisasi. Clostridium botulinum merupakan bakteri thermophilik (tahan panas) yang dapat hidup dalam kondisi anaerobik (tidak ada oksigen). Bakteri ini menghasilkan toksin (racun) yang dapat menyebabkan botulisme. Botulisme merupakan gejala keracunan yang disebabkan oleh botulin. Botulisme dapat terjadi selang beberapa jam sampai satu atau dua hari setelah mengkonsumsi makanan yang terkontaminasi racun Clostridium botulinum. Beberapa gejala yang timbul antara lain mulut kering, penglihatan kabur, tenggorokan kaku, kejang-kejang dan dapat mengakibatkan penderita meninggal karena sukar bernafas (Wiwit, 2008).

1.2 Toksin Clostridium botulinum
Kasus botulismus pertama kali dilaporkan tahun 1793 serta agen etimologinya pertama kali diisolasi tahun 1895 oleh E. Van Ermengen. Wabah yang diteliti oleh Van Ermengen terjadi di Belgia dengan kejadian 34 kasus dan menewaskan 3 orang penderita. Organisme penyebab dinamainya Bacillusbotulinus dari latin botulus yang berarti sosis. Botulismus disebabkan oleh C.botulinum adalah kuman gram positif, anaerob, bentuk batang, spora (Jay, 1978). Berdasarkan atas spesifisitas serologi dari toksinnya dikenal ada 7 jenis toksin yaitu : Jenis A, B, C, D, E, F,dan G.
Gambar 3. Toksin Botulisme
Toksin A, B, E, dan F sebagai penyebab penyakit pada manusia. Toksin jenis A umumnya sebagai penyebab botulisme di negara bagian Barat Amerika, dimana toksin A bersifat lebih toksik dibandingkan dengan toksin jenis B. Toksin jenis B lebih sering dijumpai di tanah dan bersifat kurang toksik dari jenis A. Toksin C merupakan penyebab penyakit pada unggas, sapi dan hewan lainnya. Toksin D berkaitan dengan keracunan makanan pada pakan sapi terutama di Afrika Selatan. Toksin E bersifat toksik pada manusia terutama ditemukan pada ikan dan produk-produk ikan. Toksin F sama dengan jenis A dan B yang diisolasi di Denmark. Jenis G dilaporkan di Argentina tetapi dikatakan tidak mengakibatkan botulismus pada manusia namun C, D, dan G mengakibatkan botulisme pada unggas. Berdasarkan atas sifat toksinnya dapat juga digolongkan atas dasar kemampuan proteolitiknya dimana toksin jenis A, B dan F bersifat proteolitik, sedangkan jenis E tidak proteolitik (Suardana, 2001; Frazier dan Westhoff, 1988; Jay, 1978).
Terdapat tujuh macam toksin yang berbeda – beda yang dihasilkan oleh C. botulinum, yaitu tipe A, B, C, D, E, F, dan G. Toksin tipe A, B, Edan F merupakan toksin yang menyebabkan penyakit botulisme pada manusia.
C. botulinum termasuk bakteri yang bersifat mesophilic dengan suhu optimum untuk tumbuh yaitu 370 C untuk strain jenis A dan B serta 300 C untuk strain jenis E. Suhu terendah dari strain jenis A dan B adalah 12,50 C namun pernah juga dilaporkan bahwa kuman dapat tumbuh pada suhu 100 C. Disisi lain spora jenis E dikatakan mampu tumbuh dan menghasilkan toksin pada suhu 3,30 C, sementara jenis F dilaporkan tumbuh dan menghasilkan toksin pada suhu 40 C . Secara umum strain jenis E dan B bersifat non-proteolitik serta strain F suhu minimum untuk tumbuhnya lebih kurang 100 C lebih rendah daripada strain A dan B. Sedangkan suhu maksimum untuk tumbuhnya yaitu : jenis A dan B pada suhu 500 C. Strain jenis E memiliki suhu maksimum 5 derajat lebih rendah dari strain A dan B dengan suhu optimumnya yaitu 300 C (Suardana, 2001; Cliver, 1990 ; Jay, 1978).
Produksi toksin dari C. botulinum tergantung dari kemampuan sel untuk tumbuh di dalam makanan dan menjadi autolisis disana (Suardana, 2001; Frazier dan Westhoff, 1988). Lebih lanjut produksi toksin dipengaruhi oleh komposisi dari makanan atau medium terutama glukosa atau maltosa yang diketahui sangat potensial terhadap produksi toksin, kelembaban, pH, potensial redok, kadar garam, temperatur dan waktu penyimpanan.
1.3 Strategi Inhibitor Pertumbuhan Clostridium botulinum pada produk bahan pangan dalam industri kalengan
Dalam dunia industri dilakukan strategi penghambat pada bakteri yang bersifat merugikan (patogen) salah satunya dengan melakukan pengemasan (packaging). Persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi dalam pengamasan tersebut harus memiliki sifat-sifat meliputi permeabel terhadap udara (oksigen dan gas lainnya), bersifat non-toksik dan inert (tidak bereaksi dan menyebabkan reaksi kimia) sehingga dapat mempertahankan warna, aroma, dan cita rasa produk yang dikemas, kedap air (mampu menahan air atau kelembaban udara sekitarnya), kuat dan tidak mudah bocor, relatif tahan terhadap panas dan mudah dikerjakan secara massal dan harganya relatif murah.Berdasarkan persiapan sampel dan kemasan, sampel PE juga dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kelompok meliputi:
a. Full-Volume packaging
Kendali-volume sampel sampel PE meniru dunia nyata lapangan di komposisi, jumlah, dan kemasan. Karena mereka ditangani seperti sampel lapangan dunia nyata dalam hal log-in, penyimpanan, persiapan, analisis, dan pelaporan, mereka menyediakan evaluasi dari seluruh operasi dari laboratorium dari sampel penerima untuk pelaporan data. Namun, lebih sulit dan mahal untuk mempersiapkan dan menggunakan sampel PE penuh volume karena kehidupan yang pendek. Mayoritas USACE’s PE sampel sampel PE full-volume yang baru disiapkan sebelum pengiriman.
b. Vacum packaging
Makanan adalah produk yang membutuhkan perawatan dan pengemasan khusus. Dalam mengemas makanan, kita tak boleh salah pilih, karena jika makanan dikemas dengan asal-asalan, hasilnya akan berantakan. Makanan jadi cepat membusuk dan masa simpannya lebih pendek. Untuk mengemas makanan, anda memerlukan mesin pengemas kedap udara. Dengan pengemas kedap udara (vacuum), bakteri-bakteri yang menyukai tempat seperti makanan akan dapat dihindari.
c. Ampul
Ampul PE sampel konsentrat disegel di dalam ampul kaca. Laboratorium ikuti
instruksi khusus untuk mencairkan berkonsentrasi sebelum persiapan sampel dan analisis. Karena konsentrat api disegel, rak-kehidupan sampel PE ampul biasanya jauh lebih lama daripada sampel full-volume PE. Sebuah jumlah besar sampel PE ampul disiapkan dan didistribusikan untuk antar laboratorium round-robin studi. USACE menggunakan sampel PE ampul untuk beberapa PE kurang stabil sampel seperti senyawa organik yang mudah menguap di dalam pestisida tanah dan organofosfat dalam air. Ampul sampel hanya dapat digunakan sebagai single sampel PE buta
Pada hasil penelitian berdasarkan atas pH, dilaporkan bahwa C. botulinum tidak mampu tumbuh pada pH di bawah 4,5 pada makanan berkadar asam. Lebih jauh dilaporkan bahwa organisme akan tumbuh dengan baik dan menghasilkan toksin pada pH 5,5-8,0 (Suardana, 2001; Jay, 1978). Sedangkan Frazier dan Westhoff (1988) menyatakan bahwa nilai pH minimal untuk pertumbuhan sel vegetatif adalah 4,87 sedangkan untuk petumbuhan spora pada PH 5,01 di dalam cairan kaldu.
Nutrisi yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan bersifat komplek, diperlukan asam amino, vitamin B dan mineral. C. botulinum jenis A dan B memerlukan kadar air 0,94 dan jenis E pada 0,97 Dilaporkan bahwa kadar garam 10% atau 50% sukrosa akan menghambat pertumbuhan jenis A dan B. Tar dalam Jay (1978) menyatakan bahwa pada konsentrasi 25-500 ppm dapat menghambat jenis A lebih dari sebulan pada suhu optimum dengan pH 5,9-7,6. Di dalam penelitian pembentukan toksin jenis E dan pertumbuhan sel didalam kalkun yang diinkubasikan pada suhu 300 C, Midura et al., dalam Jay (1978) menemukan bahwa spora jenis E akan memperbanyak diri dan menghasikan toksin dalam waktu 24 jam. Penampakan toksin bertepatan dengan pertumbuhan sel selama 2 minggu setelah toksin berada di luar sel hidup. Penemuan ini mengungkapkan bahwa kemungkinan ditemukannya toksin jenis E di dalam makanan tanpa ditemukannya sel jenis E.
Makanan yang mengandung toksin umumnya tanpa jenis organisme yang lain, hal ini disebabkan oleh perlakuan panas dan pengepakan vakum. Dilihat dari kehadiran ragi, kuman dilaporkan dapat tumbuh dan menghasilkan toksin pada pH rendah 4,0. Ragi dianggap menghasilkan faktor pertumbuhan yang diperlukan oleh Clostridia untuk tumbuh pada pH rendah, sementara bakteri asam laktat diasumsikan sebagai alat pertumbuhan dengan terjadinya penurunan potensial redok. Sejumlah strain C. perfringens menghasilkan penghambat yang efektif terhadap 11 strain tipe A, 7 B proteolitik, dan 1 non proteolitik, pada 5 strain E dan 7 strain F. Kautter et al., dalam Jay (1978) menemukan bahwa strain jenis E dihambat oleh organisme non toksik lainnya yang mempunyai ciri morfologi dan uji biokimia yang sama dengan tipe E. Organisme yang menunjukkan efek penghambatan ini menghasilkan substansi seperti bakteriocin yang dikenal dengan nama bioticin. Laporan menunjukkan bahwa adanya kaitan antara C. botulinum tipe F dalam sampel lumpur selama periode waktu tertentu dengan kehadiran dari Bacillus licheniformis, dan kahadiran bakteri ini dianggap sebagai pembawa faktor penghambat untuk pertumbuhan strain jenis F (Suardana, 2001).
1.4 Jenis Botulisme
Ada tiga jenis botulisme yang biasa dijumpai, yaitu foodborne botulism (terjadi karena mengkonsumsi makanan yang terkontaminasi oleh Clostridium botulinum), wound botulisme (karena ada luka yang terkontaminasi oleh Clostridium botulinum) dan infant botulisme (terjadi pada anak-anak yang mengkonsumsi makanan terkontaminasi Clostridium botulinum) (Wiwit, 2008).
Gejala-gejala pertama wound botulisme (karena ada luka yang terkontaminasi oleh Clostridium botulinum) biasanya termasuk mulut kering, penglihatan ganda, kelopak mata layu, dan ketidakmampuan untuk fokus pada benda di sekitarnya. Pupil pada mata tidak mengkerut dengan normal ketika terkena sinar selama pemeriksaan mata.
Gejala-gejala pada foodborne botulism terjadi tiba-tiba, biasanya 18 sampai 36 jam setelah racun memasuki tubuh, meskipun gejala-gejala bisa mulai lebih cepat selama 4 jam atau selambat-lambatnya 8 hari setelah mencerna racun. Racun yang lebih banyak diserap, lebih cepat orang menjadi sakit. Biasanya, orang menjadi sakit dalam waktu 24 jam makan makanan terkontaminasi adalah yang sangat parah terkena.pada foodborne botulism, gejala-gejala pertama seringkali mual, muntah, kram perut, dan diare. Orang yang memiliki luka botulism tidak mengalami gejala-gejala pencernaan apapun. Kerusakan syaraf oleh racun mempengaruhi kekuatan otot tetapi bukan indra perasa. Nada otot pada wajah kemungkinan hilang. Berbicara dan menelan menjadi sulit. Karena menelan adalah sulit, makanan atau ludah seringkali terhisap (asoirated) ke dalam paru-paru, menyebabkan cekikan atau sumbatan dan meningkatkan resiko pneumonia. Beberapa orang menjadi sembelit. Otot pada lengan dan kaki dan otot yang berhubungan dalam pernafasan menjadi lemah secara progresif sebagaimana gejala-gejala secara bertahap menurunkan tubuh. Masalah pernafasan kemungkinan mengancam nyawa. Pikiran biasanya tetap jernih.
Pada sekitar 90% bayi dengan infant botulism, sembelit adalah gejala awal. Kemudian otot menjadi lumpuh, dimulai dari wajah dan kepala dan segera menuju lengan, kaki dan otot yang berhubungan dengan pernafasan. Kelopak mata layu, menangis lemah, bayi tidak bisa menghisap, dan wajah mereka kehilangan ekspresi. Kisaran masalah dari menjadi lemah dan lambat makan sampai kehilangan nada otot dalam jumlah besar dan mengalami kesulitan bernafas. Ketika bayi kehilangan nada otot, mereka bisa merasa timpang yang abnormal.
1.5Pengobatan Botulisme
Botulisme harus ditangani secara serius . Tes laboratorium untuk memastikan diagnosa dilakukan, tetapi pengobatan seringkali tidak dapat ditunda sampai hasilnya diketahui. Untuk membantu menghilangkan berbagai racun yang tidak dapat diserap, bisa memberi arang aktif melalui mulut atau melalui pipa yang dimasukkan ke dalam perut. Tanda vital (detak, tingkat pernafasan, tekanan darah, dan suhu) diukur dengan sering. Jika masalah pernafasan terjadi, orang dipindahkan ke ruang perawatan intensif dan kemungkinan secara sementara diletakkan pada ventilator. Beberapa pengobatan telah mengurangi presentase kematian disebabkan botulisme dari sekitar 70% pada awal 1900 sampai kurang dari 10%. Maka penyakit yang di akibatkan oleh Clostridium botulinum perlu adanya pengobatan.
Mikroorganisme dapat berperan dalam bidang kesehatan yaitu dapat mensintesis antitoksin yang dapat memberikan pengobatan pada botulisme. Zat yang menyumbat aksi racun (antitoxin) diberikan segera mungkin setelah botulisme telah didiagnosa. Hal ini lebih mungkin untuk membantu jika diberikan dalam 72 jam ketika gejala-gejala terjadi. Antitoxin bisa memperlambat atau menghentikan kemunduran fisik lebih lanjut, sehingga tubuh bisa sembuh dengan sendirinya lebih dari jangka waktu sebulan. Meskipun begitu, antitoxin tidak dapat membatalkan kerusakan siap dilakukan. Juga, beberapa orang mengalami reaksi alergi serius (anaphylactic)terhadap antitoxin, yang diperoleh dari serum kuda, atau terbentuk serum penyakit. Antitoxin tidak dianjurkan untuk botulisme bayi, tetapi digunakan pada botulism immune globulin (diperoleh dari darah pada orang yang diimunisasi melawan botulisme) pada bayi akan dipelajari. Orang bisa memerlukan untuk diberi makan melalui pipa pembuluh darah. Bayi bisa memerlukan untuk diberi makan melalui pipa palstik makanan tipis (pipa nasogastric)dilewati melalui hidung dan turun ke tenggorokan. Beberapa orang yang sembuh dari botulisme merasa lelah dan nafas pendek untuk setahun ke depan.
Botulisme ini faktor utamanya yaitu mengonsumsi makanan yang terkontaminasi Clostridium botulinum. Beberapa cara yang bisa membantu mencegah foodborne botulism :Memasak makanan pada suhu 176º F (79.9ºC) selama 30 menit, hampir selalu menghancurkan racun. Merebus makanan kaleng rumahan selama 10 menit, menghancurkan racun. Membuang kaleng makanan yang berubah warna atau baunya busuk. Membuang kaleng yang menggembung atau bocor. Membekukan minyak yang terkena bawang putih atau rempah-rempah. Menjaga kentang yang telah dipanggang dalam kertas aluminium tetap panas sampai dihidangkan. Tidak memberi makan madu anak yang berusia di bawah 2 tahun, yang bisa mengandung clostridium botulinum spora.Jika orang tidak pasti kaleng harus dibuang, mereka bisa memeriksa ketika mereka mulai untuk membuka. Sebelum membuat tusukan pertama, mereka bisa meletakkan beberapa tetes air di dalam daerah tersebut untuk ditusuk. Jika air terusir dibandingkan terhisap ke dalam kaleng ketika kaleng ditusuk, kaleng terkontaminasi dan harus dibuang. Berbagai makanan kemungkinan terkontaminasi harus diletakkan dengan hati-hati. Bahkan racun dalam jumlah sedikit yang tercerna, terhisap, atau terserap melalui mata atau luka di kulit bisa menyebabkan penyakit serius. Sentuhan kulit harus dihindari sebanyak mungkin, dan tangan harus segera dicucisetelah memegang makanan. Jika luka menjadi terinfeksi, dengan segera mencari perawatan medis bisa mengurangi resiko luka botulisme.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Astawan,Made.2007.Waspadai Bakteri Patogen pada Makanan.http://cyberman.cbn.net.id/cbprtl/common/ptofriend.aspx?x=Nutrition&y=cybermed%7C0%7C0%7C6%7C425. Diakses tanggal 5 Desember 2010.
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Jawet, dkk.2010.Mikrobiologi Kedokteran. Jakarta;Penerbit Salemba Medica.
Suardana, I Wayan. 2001. Botulismus pada Manusia. http://www.jvetunud.com/archives/8. Diakses tanggal 5 Desember 2010.
Waluyo,Lud.2005.Mikrobiologi Umum.Malang:Penerbit UMM Press.
Wiwit, Neneng. 2008. Seputar Makanan Kalenghttp://ne2nkwi2t.wordpress.com/2008/02/21/52/. Diakses tanggal 5 Desember 2010. 

p.s.: pls take out with full credit 
Nisa, A. 2010. Clostridium botulinum Penyebab Botulisme diakses dari http://anniesfile.blogspot.com/2011/03/clostridium-botulinum-penyebab.html

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